Loading Claims when Using Windows Authentication in ASP.NET Core 2.x

NOTE 1: the post below applies to ASP.NET Core 2.x.
Things have remained conceptually the same in 3.1 and 5.0, though a few registration options or layouts may have been changed. For an updated version of the code in here, see my Github repo which contains a fully runnable sample.

NOTE 2: When using IIS Express, the claim transformation mentioned in this post is called on each request.
The Cached Claims post suggests an approach to overcoming this behavior.

Much like almost everything else in ASP.NET Core, enabling Windows Authentication in ASP.NET Core is well documented and has superb step-by-step examples.

The Claims-based authorization system is documented just as well and the examples are well chosen.

Where I thought the documentation fell short was the marrying of the two concepts; there is little explanation given to how the claims are actually made available to be check and asserted on.

If we were to inspect the Identity of a User, we would notice that it already has a substantial Claims collection. These claims are all seemingly associate with specific Windows user properties, and to me have largely legible names yet indecipherable values, save perhaps for the .../name claim:

Type Value HOME\philip S-1-5-21-616010284-1202357983-1921873989-1000 S-1-1-0 S-1-5-4
etc etc

In contrast, the Claims examples make use of such nicely named claims like "EmployeeNumber" or ClaimTypes.DateOfBirth, none of which can be found in the claims collection of our Windows user.

To load claim in ASP.NET Core 2.x we make use of one or more claims transformations, classes implementing IClaimsTransformation (used to be called IClaimsTransformer in earlier versions), which get access to the ClaimsPrincipal and can construct new ones or add claims to the loaded one.

In the following example we’ll look at adding our own claims to the collection. To make it a bit more interesting, let’s assume we have a table in the database that stores the ids of the users who are administrators of our own application and we would like to add a flag in claims if a user logging in is part of this table.

Assuming we use these in combination with Authorize attribute, likely to check for an "IsAdmin" claim: [Authorize(Policy = "IsAdmin")], we will be making the following changes to our application:

Packages required

If running against .NET Core 2.x, the Microsoft.AspNetCore.App meta-package is sufficient.

If running against .NET Framework 4.6+, we need to add:

  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication - provides a large host of authorization classes, policies, and convenience extension methods;
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.IISIntegration - adds support for IIS (and IIS Express) in further support of the authentication process.

Code changes


Enable Windows authentication for IIS. Also enable anonymous access if usage of [AllowAnonymous] attribute is needed:

  "iisSettings": {
    "windowsAuthentication": true,
    "anonymousAuthentication": true,


Enable authentication by adding the following to the Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ...) method:


Add IIS authentication scheme in ConfigureServices:


We’ll be back here in a bit to register our claims loader


Before we implement IClaimsTransformation a couple notes about it.

First, they run on each AuthenticateAsync call, which means for IIS Authentication they may run only once and whatever claims we add to the collection are cached for as long as the user is logged in.
If we remove a logged in user from the list of administrators, they might continue to behave as such until they log in again.

Second, they run on each AuthenticateAsync call, so we will heed this warning from the documentation of TransformAsync:

Note: this will be run on each AuthenticateAsync call, so its safer to return a new ClaimsPrincipal if your transformation is not idempotent.

This is because if any call (tests?) causes AuthenticateAsync to be called twice, the same claim is added twice to the collection as pointed out in this article by Brock Allen.

using System.Security.Claims; // for ClaimsPrincipal
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication; // for IClaimsTransformation

public class ClaimsLoader : IClaimsTransformation
    public const string IsAdminKey = "IsAdmin";
    private readonly UserContext _userContext;

    public MigrationsUserClaimsLoader(UserContext userContext)
        _userContext = userContext;

    public async Task<ClaimsPrincipal> TransformAsync(ClaimsPrincipal principal)
        var identity = (ClaimsIdentity)principal.Identity;

        // create a new ClaimsIdentity copying the existing one
        var claimsIdentity = new ClaimsIdentity(

        // check if our user is in the admin table
        // identity.Name is the domain-prefixed id, eg HOME\philip
        if (await _userContext.IsAdminAsync(identity.Name))
                new Claim(IsAdminKey, "So say we all"));

        // create a new ClaimsPrincipal in observation
        // of the documentation note
        return new ClaimsPrincipal(claimsIdentity);

Startup.cs - adding policy

Now that we created our claims loader, let’s register it with the service collection and add a policy for it too:

services.AddTransient<IClaimsTransformation, ClaimsLoader>();

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
        policy => policy.RequireClaim(ClaimsLoader.IsAdminKey));

At this point we can decorate our controllers or controller actions and employ the policy we just added:

[Authorize(Policy = "IsAdmin")]
public Task<IActionResult> AddUser() {


The example adds the "IsAdmin" claim only if the user is an admin.

If we wanted to add the claim anyway and rely on the value of the claim, the code changes as following:

ClaimsLoader.cs - variation

bool isAdmin = await _userContext.IsAdminAsync(identity.Name));
claimsIdentity.AddClaim(new Claim(IsAdminKey, isAdmin ? "yes" : "no"));

Startup.cs - variation

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
        policy => policy.RequireClaim(ClaimsLoader.IsAdminKey, "yes"));

or to add a JavaScript flavor to it ;)

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
        policy => policy.RequireClaim(
            "yes", "Yes", "true", "True", "1")); // ugh